Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, is the catch-all term used to describe a number of different modern sequencing technologies including:
- Illumina® (Solexa) sequencing
- Roche 454 sequencing
- Ion torrent: Proton / PGM sequencing
- SOLiD sequencing
These recent technologies allow us to sequence DNA and RNA much more quickly and cheaply than the previously used Sanger sequencing, and as such have revolutionised the study of genomics and molecular biology
Next generation methods of DNA sequencing have three general steps:
- Library preparation: libraries are created using random fragmentation of DNA, followed by ligation with custom linkers
- Amplification: the library is amplified using clonal amplification methods and PCR
- Sequencing: DNA is sequenced using one of several different approaches
Illumina® next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology uses clonal amplification and sequencing by synthesis (SBS) chemistry to enable rapid, accurate sequencing. The process simultaneously identifies DNA bases while incorporating them into a nucleic acid chain. Each base emits a unique fluorescent signal as it is added to the growing strand, which is used to determine the order of the DNA sequence.
NGS technology can be used to sequence the DNA from any organism, providing valuable information in response to almost any biological question. A highly scalable technology, DNA sequencing can be applied to small, targeted regions or the entire genome through a variety of methods, enabling researchers to investigate and better understand health and disease.